List of Tables
List of Figures

Preface

1. Contructing a Theory of Complex Society

The Direct Strategy

Relation to other Formulations

The Relation of SET to Middle-Range and Micro Theory

The Relation of SET to General or Macro Formulations

Plan of the Chapters

2. The Isomorphic Concrete Systems Model

Beyond Functionalism

Functionalism

General Systems Theory

The Challenges

Meeting the Challenges

The Isomorphic Concrete Systems Model

Epistemology

Isomorphism

The Two-Level Model

Anomalies in the Two-Level Model

The Three-Level Model

Extensions of the Three-Level Model

Abstracted Versus Concrete Sociological Theory

The Complex Isomorphic Systems Model (X")

Holistic Model Adequacy

3. Social Entropy

The History of Social Equilibrium

Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Entropy

Nonthermodynamic Physical Equilibrium and Entropy

The Spencerian Dilemma

First Principles

Pareto

Equilibrium between Pareto and Parsons

Parsons

Moving Equilibrium

Equilibrium as an Analytic Device

Homeostasis

Summarizing the Breadth of Parsons' Equilibrium Concept

The History of Social Entropy

Prigogine

Use of Entropy

Statistical Formulations

Entropy in General Systems Theory

Verbal Formulations of Social Entropy

Evaluating the Literature on Social Entropy

4. Macrosociology

Key Societal Variables

Global Properties

Spatial Area (Expansion of Boundaries)

Population Size

Level of Living

Technology

Organization

Information

Distributional (Analytical) Measurement

Interrelationships among Variables

Global Measurement

Distributions

Exhaustiveness

Control

Internal Versus External Relationships

Internal Relationships

Open Boundaries

Summary

5. The Individual in Complex Society

Sorokin's Ten-Dimensional Structure

The Mutable Distributions

The Immutable Variables

Allocation Theory

Global Constraints

Change in Mutable Distribution Structure

Relevant Theories

Overview

Organization

Technology

Space

Information

Level of Living

Expectations and Goals

Summary

6. Organizations

Organizational Formation

Divisive Grouping Processes

Agglomerative Grouping Processes

Boundaries

Boundary Formation

Membership Boundaries

Outreach

Summary

Entropy and Information in Organizations

Multiple Membership

Concluding Remarks

7. The Central Problem of Social Order

Introduction

Social Order

Two Types of Order

Q- and R- Relationships

The Holistic Model of Social Order

Category Theory

Effect of Symbolic Structure on Action

Why Actions Are Replicated

Summary

Order and the Three Level Model

The Synchronic Nature of Markers

Markers and Mutables

Power and Conflict

Expectations and Power

Mutables and Conflict

Immutables and Conflict

Entropy and Inequality

Concluding Remarks

8. Statistical Entropy

Probabilistic Entropy

Number of Categories

Type B Mapping

Type C Mapping

The Marker (X") Level

Sample Size

Sampling Distribution

Relationship of Categorical Entropy to Continuous Variables

Categorical and Continuous Entropy

Continuous Entropy

Measuring Inequality

Continuous

Decomposition

Categorical Income Data

Measures of Population Diversity

Proportional Reduction in Error

Summary

9. Reflections and Hypotheses

Reflections

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Hypotheses

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Concluding Remarks

References

Author Index

Subject Index