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Presents research on how variations in African Americans’ racial self-concept affects meaning-making and internalized oppression.
Focusing on the broad range of attitudes Black people employ to make sense of their Blackness, this volume offers the latest research on racial identity. The first section explores meaning-making, or the importance of holding one type of racial-cultural identity as compared to another. It looks at a wide range of topics, including stereotypes, spirituality, appearance, gender and intersectionalities, masculinity, and more. The second section examines the different expressions of internalized racism that arise when the pressure of oppression is too great, and includes such topics as identity orientations, self-esteem, colorism, and linked fate. Grounded in psychology, the research presented here makes the case for understanding Black identity as wide ranging in content, subject to multiple interpretations, and linked to both positive mental health as well as varied forms of internalized racism.
“With its impressive and varied research base, this is one of the most comprehensive books on the subject of racial identity.” — Scott L. Graves Jr., Duquesne University Jas M. Sullivan is Associate Professor of Political Science and African and African American Studies at Louisiana State University and the coeditor (with Ashraf M. Esmail) of African American Identity: Racial and Cultural Dimensions of the Black Experience.William E. Cross Jr. is Clinical Professor at the University of Denver and Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the Graduate Center, City University of New York. He is the author of Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity.
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Foreword Robert Sellers
Introduction William E. Cross Jr. and Jas M. Sullivan
Part I. Meaning-Making
1. Affirming Blackness: Racial Identity from Racial Color-Blindness to Critical Consciousness Helen A. Neville, Tuyet-Mai H. Hoang, and Arielle Brown
2. The Racial Ties that Bind: Blacks’ Affective and Behavioral Responses to Black-White Biracials Acting Stereotypically Sabrica Barnett and Daryl Wout
3. The Relationship between Parents’ Racial Identity Attitudes and their Adolescent Children’s Perception of Physical Appearance, Racial Identity, and Social Adjustment Peony Fhagen
4. Ethos Matters: Identity, Spirituality, and Meaning and Purpose among African-American Youth Lisa K. Hill, Debra D. Roberts, and Kelli A. Hill
5. Expanding Black Narratives: The Role of Meaning-Making in Ethnically Diverse Blacks’ Racial Identity and
Racial Awareness Hollie L. Jones and Eve Lorane Brown
6. I Too Am Black: Bi/Multiracial Black Youth Speak about Their Racialized Experiences Stephen M. Quintana, Susan Lambe Sarinana, and Alyssa M. Ramirez Stege
7. The “One Drop Rule”: Shifting Expressions of Racial Identity and Well-Being in Black-Multiracial Individuals Lauren E. Smith, Laura Kohn-Wood, and Guerda Nicolas
8. Through the Lens of Gender: An Intersectional Perspective on Race and Racial Identity Isis H. Settles and Elizabeth R. Cole
9. The Intersection of Social Identities among Black Female College Students Joanna Lee Williams and Saida B. Hussain
10. The Intersection of Racial and Cultural Identity for African Americans: Expanding the Scope of Black
Self-Understanding A. Wade Boykin, R. Davis Dixon, David S. B. Mitchell,Adrian W. Bruce, Yetunde O. Akinola, and Nikeshia P. Holt
11. Ethnic-Racial Identity and College Adjustment and Coping among African-American College Students: Moderating Effects of Kin Social Support Ronald D. Taylor, Azeb Gebre, and Elizabeth Tuzo
12. “I Am a Man Too!”: Masculinity, Economic Violence, and Resilience in The Streets of Black America Yasser Arafat Payne
Part II. Internalized Racism
13. How Stigma Gets Under the Skin: Internalized Oppression and Dual Minority Stress among Black Sexual Minorities Alex A. Ajayi and Moin Syed
14. Black Identities, Internalized Racism, and Self-Esteem William E. Cross Jr. and David M. Frost
15. Acceptance of Injustice among Ethnic Minorities as a Function of Ideology and Social Comparison Process Krystal M. Perkins
16. The Intersection of Colorism and Racial Identity and the Impact on Mental Health Kira Hudson Banks, Richard D. Harvey,Tanisha Thelemaque, and Onyinyechi V. Anukem
17. Meta-Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale: Psychological Costs and Benefits of Racial Identity Aaronson Y. Chew and Stephen M. Quintana
18. Racial Oppression and Other Black Identity Correlates Kenneth Foster Sr.
19. The Role of Discrimination in Shaping the Presence and Strength of Linked Fate Jas M. Sullivan and Jonathan Winburn