top_2_1.jpg top_2_2.jpg
Bigotry and the Afrocentric "Jazz" Evolution
Third Edition
Bigotry and the Afrocentric
Click on image to enlarge

Karlton E. Hester - Author
Global Academic Publishing
Paperback - 574 pages
Release Date: June 2012
ISBN10: 1-58684-228-5
ISBN13: 978-1-58684-228-4

Out of Print


A reminder that much of the music that drives contemporary music and world culture has Afrocentric origins.

The controversy surrounding the ownership of “jazz” involves an intersection of residual “slave mentality” (that insists African Americans contribute little to world society) combined with a perpetual mode of exploitation of artistic innovations that result from African American creativity. Examining the evolution of African American music within the context of its sociocultural history makes the most salient aspects of the roots of innovative “Black” music increasingly clear. The success of “jazz” and other African American music gradually attracted the attention of people around the world. As a consequence, many Eurocentric capitalists and institutions insist upon claiming ownership and control. Racism and sexism provoke illogical responses and behavior throughout society. As a result, many people love “jazz” while refusing to acknowledge the progenitors of the music. Nonetheless, after all is said and done, the innovators of all “jazz” styles remain Scott Joplin, Louis Armstrong, Mary Lou Williams, Billie Holiday, Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Ella Fitzgerald, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Miles Davis, John Coltrane, Donald Byrd, Cecil Taylor, Ornette Coleman, and other African American masters.

Bigotry and the Afrocentric ‘Jazz’ Evolution will become required reading in all substantial music and departments of the arts. I immediately recognized the value of Hester’s contribution to contemporary musicology. His book is an example of five stars authorship. Read it and enjoy.” — Donald Byrd   

Karlton E. Hester, composer, flutist, and saxophonist, is Professor of Music and Director of “Jazz” Studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

A Global Academic Publishing Book

Bookmark and Share

Table of Contents

Prologue – An Introduction to Afrocentric Music
Afrocentric Origins of “Jazz”

Eurocentric Documentation and Control of African-American Music

The Impact of Racism and Sexism


I. Traditional African Music

Formulating an Approach to Understanding African Music

Africa Before the European Slave Trade

Early African Contact with Europe

Women, Music, and Religion in Africa

Stylistic Regions of African Music
            Northern Africa
            Ancient Egyptian music
            Ancient Nubian written music
            Moroccan music
            North African women musicians

Stylistic Regions of Sub-Saharan African Music
            II. East Cattle Area
            III. Congo Area
            Central African Republic
            Republic of the Congo
            The Pygmy
            IV. Guinea Coast Area
            V. Khoisan Area
            VI. Sudan
            Northern Sudan
            Western Sudan

The Function of African Music in African Culture

An Overview of Musical Style

Characteristics of African Music
            Musical Instruments
            Structures of African Rhythms
            Classes of African Musicians

European Methods of Examining African Culture


A Survey of African Kingdoms
            Kush (Nubia)
            Ancient Ghana
            Mali (not the Republic of Mali)

II. The Sociocultural Context in Which African-American Music Emerged

The Natives of America

Africans’ Limited Access to Musical Instruments and Performance Venues in America

Slave Era Music and Cultural Cross-Fertilization

African-American Music Convergence Affected by Sex and Marriage

Sociocultural Influences on Seventeenth Century African-American Music

Eighteenth-Century Sociocultural Changes

Witch Craze

III. Traditional African-American Music

Music Evolves During the Struggle for Independence and Equal Rights

American Folksongs and the Blues: Pre-Civil War
            The Cakewalk and Children’s Game Songs

American Folksongs and the Blues: Post-Civil War


Minstrel Shows

The Dawn of Ragtime

The Term “Jazz”

Musical Influence on Religion, Racism, and Revolution

Jim Crow Segregation Perpetuates Segregated Musical Styles


IV. Innovators Emerging Between 1900 and 1910

Ecumenical Music Retention

The Continuation of Double Entendre and Other Modes of Communication

Afrocentric Dance and Musical Cross-Fertilization

Early Blues
            Gertrude “Ma” Rainey – “Mother of the Blues”
            William Christopher Handy – “Father of the Blues”

From Vaudeville to Ragtime
            Scott Joplin
            James Scott
            Thomas Million Turpin
            James Reese Europe

New Orleans – Dixieland “Jazz” (“Traditional Jazz”)
            “Buddy” Bolden
            William Gary “Bunk” Johnson
            “Jelly Roll” Morton
            “Papa” Celestin, “King” Oliver, and Freddie Keppard
            Other New Orleans Instrumentalists

Turn-of-the-Century Women Musicians

New York– Tin Pan Alley

African Musical Influences in the Americas
            The Evolution of the Drum Set
            The Double Bass Evolution

V. Innovators Emerging Between 1910 and 1920

The Blues Continues to Evolve
            Two Influential Rural Blues Musicians
            Classic Blues
            Bessie Smith

Ida Cox and Migrations to Northern Cities
            Mamie Smith
            Other Women Instrumentalists

Sidney Bechet and the Early Transition from Clarinet to Saxophone

Evolution of the Early Piano

Politics and the Twentieth-Century African American Church on the Eve of the Harlem Renaissance

VI. Innovators Emerging between 1920 and 1930

Snapshots of American Society

The Effects of Changing American Demographics on Music

New Orleans and the Movement East

Swing and Its Precursors
            Fats Waller
            New York During the Harlem Renaissance

Chicago Dixieland

The Jelly Roll Morton Documentary

Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong and His Associates
            Joe “King” Oliver
            Lil Hardin Armstrong
            Bix Beiderbecke

Big Bands and the Approaching Swing Era
            African-American “Jazz” Bands
            Commercial and Middle-of-the-Road Bands
            Big Bands Swing
            Fletcher Henderson
            Duke Ellington
            Jimmie Lunceford
            Bennie Moten
            Count Basie
            Glenn Miller
            Paul Whiteman

The Media Continues to Burgeon

VII. Innovators Emerging Between 1930 and 1940

The New “Swing” Bands

Women’s Bands during the Early Twentieth Century
            Ina Ray Hutton and Her Melodears
            International Sweethearts of Rhythm
            Other Women’s Bands

Emma Barrett

Other Women Artists

Toward Greater Individual Expression
            Art Tatum
            Mary Lou Williams

The “Age of Sax Masters” Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young
            Coleman Hawkins
            Lester Young
            Ben Webster and the Influence of Hawkins and Young

The Voice Continues to Be a Strong Influence
            Billie Holiday
            Ella Fitzgerald

Ellington’s Afrocentricity and the European “Mirage”

The European Image of “Jazz”
            European “Mirage” and “Jazz” Politics
            Benny Goodman

Other African-American Dance Bands

A Glance at the Development of the Guitar in Early “Jazz”

VIII. Innovators Emerging Between 1940 and 1950

Basic Blues and Early Precursors of Modern “Jazz”

Bebop Ties to Past and Present Cultures

Bebop Begins to Evolve
            Progenitors of the Bebop Revolution
            Charlie “Bird” Parker and “Black” Music Downtown
            Misfortune, Drugs, and Alcohol Enter the Bop Scene

Bop Brass Instrumentalists
            Dizzy Gillespie
            Melba Doretta Liston
            Howard McGee and Others

Bebop Pianists
            Earl “Bud” Powell
            Thelonious Monk
            Women Bop Pianists

Other Bop Era Pianists
            Dorothy Donegan
            Lennie Tristano

Women Vocalists and Instrumentalists during the 1940s
            Sarah Vaughn
            Carmen McRae
            Pauline Braddy (Williams)
            Mary Osborne

“Progressive Jazz”


IX. Innovators Emerging Between 1950 and 1960

Continued Resistance to African-American Freedom


Miles David and “Cool Jazz”

Louis Jordan and Sonny Rollins

John Coltrane and Other New Approaches to Spontaneous Composition

Ornette Coleman

Cecil Taylor

Sun Ra

Charles Mingus

Two “Jazz” Harpists in the 1950s
            Dorothy Ashby
            Corky Hale

Art Blakely

Phineas Newborn


X. Innovators Emerging Between 1960 and 1970

Evolution of Innovative Music for 1960s Audiences

Restructuring Musical Approaches

Artistic Expression or Entertainment

Betty Carter

Alice Coltrane

Eric Dolphy and the “Jazz” Critics

Albert Ayler

The Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians

The Emergence of the Art Ensemble of Chicago

Dewey Redmen, Art David, and the New York Scene

Amina Claudine Myers

Pharaoh Sanders

Archie Shepp

Joanne Brackeen

Charles Tolliver

Toshiko Akiyoshi

“Traditional Jazz” Continues

1960s Music Outside African-American Culture

Summary: The American Society That 1960s Music Reflected

XI. Innovators Emerging Between 1970 and 1980

Changes Around the World

Spiritual “Jazz” and New Musical Settings
            Changing Attitudes in Europe

Connecting Fusion, Miles David, and Jimi Hendrix
            Jazz-Funk Fusion
            Jazz-Rock Fusion
            Donald Byrd

The Crossroads of Stylistic Evolution

More Conceptual Expansion
            Charles Mingus Reemerges during the 1970s
            Anthony Braxton
            The World Saxophone Quartet
            Joe Henderson
            McCoy Tyner

Instrumental Style Continues to Evolve
            The Evolution of the Flute
            Classical-“Jazz” Fusion and Other New Approaches
            Santeria and Musical Freedom

A Historical Summary

XII. Innovators Emerging Between 1980 and 2000

African-American Music in American Marketplace
            Emphasis Moves from Innovations to Youthful Image

Families of Musicians
            The Age of the Freelance Musician

Snapshot: Bay Area “Jazz” in the Early 1980s

The Contemporary Midwestern “Jazz” Scene

Rap and Hip-Hop Culture

Contemporary Politics & Labeling African-American Culture

Summary: Afrocentric Snapshots of a Shrinking Society

Related Subjects

Related Titles

When the Marching Stopped
When the Marching Stopped
Scripting the Black Masculine Body
Scripting the Black Masculine Body
Battered Black Women and Welfare Reform
Battered Black Women and Welfare Reform
College in Black and White
College in Black and White
Rhetorical Healing
Rhetorical Healing
Race, Modernity, Postmodernity
Race, Modernity, Postmodernity
Vernacular Insurrections
Vernacular Insurrections
Black Womanist Leadership
Black Womanist Leadership
Entrepreneurship and Self-Help among Black Americans
Entrepreneurship and Self-Help among Black Americans
Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire
Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire