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Managing Large Research and Development Programs
Managing Large Research and Development Programs
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Henry W. Lane - Editor
Rodney G. Beddows - Editor
Paul R. Lawrence - Editor
N/A
Hardcover - 166 pages
Release Date: June 1982
ISBN10: 0-87395-473-4
ISBN13: 978-0-87395-473-0

Out of Print
N/A
Paperback - 166 pages
Release Date: June 1982
ISBN10: 0-87395-474-2
ISBN13: 978-0-87395-474-7

Out of Print
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Summary

Today's society sorely needs the innovations that are the intended fruit of large institutions' research and development programs. Yet, to date, the complicated process of R&D management holds a track record that is far from impressive.

The task of R&D managers is to channel and direct a complex process involving scientific, political, and social groups with differing values and goals. And this must be done in such a way as to preserve an environment that allows science to pursue knowledge efficiently, but also insures that the goals pursued are relevant to pressing social needs.

To discern why some programs are more successful in this task than others, the authors have studied nine R&D programs in two large organizations, both of which are embedded in complex social, economic, and political environments. These programs are:

THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH

Artificial Heart Research, Cancer Chemotherapy Research, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Research, Sickle Cell Anemia Research, Genetics Research

THE AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY

The No. 4 Electronic Switching System, The High Capacity Mobile Telephone, Millimeter Wavelength Transmission, The D-4 Digital Channel Bank

The study not only examines the organizational and technical aspects of each program, but also considers their political environments. The authors also explore the historical origins of each program and its evolution, seeking in-depth understanding through interviews with relevant actors and analyses of documentary evidence of decisions, events, and the paths to them.

The cases selected bring out the important dimensions and issues in both public and private R&D management. The authors have illuminated logical patterns in the management process that can produce desired results. The book features a model that will prove useful to managers and students of research and development.

Henry W. Lane is Professor of Business Administration at the University of Western Ontario. Rodney G. Beddows is Managing Director of Strategy Research Associates Ltd., London. Paul R. Lawrence is Donham Professor of Organizational Behavior at Harvard Business School.


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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

List of Illustrations

List of Tables

1. R & D MANAGEMENT: OLD VIEWS AND NEW REALITIES

Introduction
Some Viewpoints on R & D Management
Research on R & D
Focus at the Technical Core
The Context of R & D
Political Intervention in R & D: A New Reality
Background of the Research
The Two Organizations
The Program Sample
Summary

2. THE POLITICAL CONTEXT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Introduction
A Dominated Program: Sickle Cell Anemia
The Stimulus for a Program
Response to the President's Initiative
Further Responses
Results
Commentary on the Sickle Cell Anemia Program
Shifts in the Relationship with the Political Environment
Destabilization and Readaptation: High Capacity Mobile Telephone System
The Nature of the Political Environment
Patterns of Mutual Adaptation

3. THE TECHNICAL LOGIC OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

The Technical Logic of Research and Development Programs
Comparing the Technical Logic of Biomedical and Communications Research
The Millimeter Waveguide Program
The First Exploratory Development Program
The Second Exploratory Development Program
Manufacturing Waveguide for Testing
Installation Techniques
Field Evaluation Test
Waveguide Put "On Hold" Once Again
The Technical Logic of Millimeter Waveguide

4. LINKING THE POLITICAL AND TECHNICAL ENVIRONMENTS: TWO UNSUCCESSFUL PROGRAMS

The Artificial Heart Program
The Master Plan
Response to the Master Plan
The Political Environment of the Artificial Heart Program
The Technical Logic of the Artificial Heart Program
Comparing the Waveguide and Artificial Heart Cases
Organizing to Fight Cancer
Emergence of the Chemotherapy Program
The Political and Technical Logics of Chemotherapy

5. LINKING THE POLITICAL AND TECHNICAL ENVIRONMENTS: A SUCCESSFUL PROGRAM

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Activity in the Political Environment
Initiating a SIDS Program and Sizing-Up the State of Knowledge
Managing the Political Environment
Congress Becomes Involved with SIDS
Interacting with Parent Groups
Interacting with the Administration
Commentary on the SIDS Program's Interaction
Contrasting the SIDS, Artificial Heart, and Sickle Cell Programs
The Technical Logic of SIDS
Administrative Mechanisms Supporting the Technical Logic
Frank Hastings - Technical Champion
Bill Warters - Program Champion

6. ORGANIZING THE TECHNICAL LOGIC

The Bell Laboratories Organization
Managing Knowledge Transfer
Discovery Activities at Crawford Hill (Stages 1-3)
The Radio Research Lab
Funding and Project Selection
Communicating Results
Exploratory Developments (Stage 4)
Development (Stage 5)
The Branch Lab at the Merrimack Valley Works
The D4 Program at the Merrimack Valley Works
The No. 4 Electronic Switching Systems (No. 4 ESS) Program Organizational Decisions
Implementation
Linking Task and Organization

7. ADAPTATION TO CHANGES IN THE TECHNICAL AND POLITICAL ENVIRONMENTS

Origin of Genetics Research Activity at NIH
The Early Genetics Program
The Changing Context of the Genetics Program
A Second Mode of Adaptation
Managing the Genetics Program After 1972
The Program's Role in Science
The Program's Role at the Boundary of Science and Society

8. MANAGING LARGE R&D PROGRAMS: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The R & D Management Model
Managing Boundaries
Creating a Synthesis
Duel Advocacy
Establishing Criteria
Switching: The Processof Organizational Learning
Using the Model

Bibliography

Index



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