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D. S. Clarke - Edited and with an introduction by
Price: $54.50 
Hardcover - 194 pages
Release Date: August 2004
ISBN10: 0-7914-6131-9
ISBN13: 978-0-7914-6131-0


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Price: $26.95 
Paperback - 194 pages
Release Date: August 2004
ISBN10: 0-7914-6132-7
ISBN13: 978-0-7914-6132-7


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An anthology of readings in panpsychism, spanning two millennia.

Panpsychism is the view that mentality extends from humans to animals, insects, plant cells, and other natural bodies exhibiting persisting unity of organization. Formulated in ancient times, it has since undergone a series of reformulations and defenses against criticisms, and is now experiencing a revival of interest. This comprehensive anthology, which includes selections spanning two millennia, chronicles the history of panpsychism, beginning with the early cosmologists of Greek philosophy and continuing into the present. The major philosophers responsible for developing and defending modern panpsychism are represented, including Leibniz, Fechner, Clifford, and Whitehead; detractors such as Edwards and Popper are also featured. An introduction outlines the principal issues raised in the selections, while commentaries accompanying the selections place them in context.

"Here we have, for the first time, a collection of a rich range of historical and contemporary materials on panpsychism, made easily accessible with helpful commentary. It is amazing that this has never been done before." — Peter H. Hare, editor of Doing Philosophy Historically

D. S. Clarke is Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. He has written many books, including Panpsychism and the Religious Attitude, also published by SUNY Press.

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Table of Contents



1. Introduction

1.1. The Extent of Mentality
1.2. Obstacles to the Acceptance of Panpsychism
1.3. Analogical Inferences
1.4. The Origination Argument
1.5. Epistemological Issues

2. Aristotle

2.1. Aristotle's Criticisms of His Predecessors
2.2. The Hierarchy of Souls
2.3. Human Immortality

3. Tiantai Buddhism

4. St. Thomas Aquinas

5. Gottfried Leibniz

5.1. Substantial Form in the Discourse on Metaphysics
5.2. The Defense of Panpsychism in Correspondence
5.3. Final Formulation in the Monadology

6. John Locke

7. Nineteenth-Century Versions

7.1. Gustav Fechner
7.2. William Kingdon Clifford
7.3. William James
7.4. Friedrich Paulsen

8. Process Philosophy

8.1. Alfred North Whitehead's Process and Reality
8.2. Hartshorne's Version of Panpsychism
8.3. Griffin on the Mind-Body Problem

9. Twentieth-Century Criticisms

9.1. Paul Edwards on Analogy and the Origination Argument
9.2. Karl Popper's Criticisms
9.3. Wittgenstein on Attributing Pain
9.4. Gilbert Ryle on Analogies and the Mental

10. Thomas Nagel

10.1. Definition of Panpsychism
10.2. Explaining the Necessary Physical/Mental Relation
10.3. Realism and Mental States
10.4. Conclusion

11. Recent Defenses

11.1. David Chalmers: Double Aspects of Information
11.2. Gregg Rosenberg: Analogies to the Infrahuman
11.3. William Seager: The Generation Problem Restated

12. Conclusion



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